Rock Engineering in Difficult Ground Conditions
– Soft Rocks and Karst
Eurock 2009
was held in Cavtat, Croatia
29-31 October 2009.

Published papers are available at the web pages of ISRM >>> and, for some amount, free of charge for ISRM members.

Here are content of the Proceedings and the

Impressum >>>

Keynote lectures
Some rock mechanics aspects of subaqueous tunnels 3
G. Anagnostou
Innovative tunneling construction method to cope with squeezing
at the Saint Martin La Porte access adit (Lyon-Turin Base Tunnel) 15
G. Barla
Metro construction at the most unfavourable depth caused a major metro
station collapse in Brazil due to a unique sub-surface structure 25
N.R. Barton
Rock engineering for structures in unstable slopes 37
H. Brandl
Tunnelling in overstressed rock 49
E. Hoek & P.G. Marinos
Stresses in rock masses: A review of key points 61
J.A. Hudson
Site characterization and rock testing for the evaluation of design parameters 73
J. Muralha, L. Lamas & N. Grossmann

Geological and hydrogeological properties of karst regions
Reconstruction of karstification and groundwater flows in carbonate rocks 89
I. Antunović, D. Zovko, J. Antunović & I. Lukić
Karstic sinkholes under existing structures 93
V.A. Barvashov & P.V. Kharlamov
Investigation of karst phenomena and measures in the Blessberg Tunnel 97
J. Benedikt, D. Spöndlin & B. Kind
A scientific based karst risk assessment for underground engineering 103
M. Filipponi, P.-Y. Jeannin & A. Parriaux
Comparison between cores and borehole images in fracture networks knowledge 109
M. Gasc-Barbier, O. Fouché & C. Gaillard
Geophysical explorations in search and mapping of karst caves of Armenia 115
R. Gasparyan
Geological and hydrogeological properties of karst regions
Reconstruction of karstification and groundwater flows in carbonate rocks 89
I. Antunović, D. Zovko, J. Antunović & I. Lukić
Karstic sinkholes under existing structures 93
V.A. Barvashov & P.V. Kharlamov
Investigation of karst phenomena and measures in the Blessberg Tunnel 97
J. Benedikt, D. Spöndlin & B. Kind
A scientific based karst risk assessment for underground engineering 103
M. Filipponi, P.-Y. Jeannin & A. Parriaux
Comparison between cores and borehole images in fracture networks knowledge 109
M. Gasc-Barbier, O. Fouché & C. Gaillard
Geophysical explorations in search and mapping of karst caves of Armenia 115
R. Gasparyan

Rock properties, testing methods and site characterization
Measuring anisotropic thermal properties of metagranite at different scales 165
B. Adl-Zarrabi, R. Christianson, J. Sundberg & J. Wrafter
Determination of deformation modulus of rock mass; Bakhtiari dam site 171
A. Akhondbabaei, S. Kariminasab, H. Jalalifar, F. Rafia & A.M. Radman
Salt crystallization deterioration in yellow travertines 175
M. Akin
Servo-controlled strength tests on moderately weathered granite 181
L.R. Alejano, D. Posada & A. Rodríguez-Dono
An approach for characterizing strain-softening Hoek-Brown rock-masses 187
L.R. Alejano, E. Alonso & A. Rodríguez-Dono
Evaluating the relations between brittleness and Cerchar abrasion index of rocks 195
R. Altindag, N. Sengun, S. Sarac, M. Mutluturk & A. Guney
Evaluation of empirical equations for assessing the true UCS of rocks 201
R. Altindag, S. Demirdag, N. Sengun, A. Guney, M. Mutluturk & R. Karaguzel
Effects of grain size distribution on KIC using CCNBD and HCCD specimens 209
H. Amrollahi & A. Baghbanan
Wavelet analysis of JRC exemplar profiles 215
M.S. Asadi, V. Rasouli & B. Tokhmechi
An uncertainty analysis for calculating permeability using EMT 221
A. Baghbanan & S. Dayani
Extent of geotechnical testing for pile excavation in port of Dubrovnik 227
M. Bandić, B. Galjan, I. Barbalić, N. Štambuk Cvitanović & I. Vrkljan
Polyaxial peak strength criteria and the design of underground openings 233
A. Bedi & J.P. Harrison
Comparison of single and multiple failure triaxial tests 239
M. Blümel
Dissolution of evaporitic rocks: Implications on geomechanical behaviour 243
R. Castellanza, G. Crosta, N. Fusi & R. Grizzetti
Evolution of compaction bands in high porosity soft rock 249
R. Castellanza, R. Nova, E. Gerolymatou, N. Fusi, V. Barberini & G. Crosta
A numerical model for analyses of flow through rock discontinuities 255
J.F. da Silva & M.V. Vidigal
Non-linear fluid flow through rough-walled fractures 261
M. Javadi, M. Sharifzadeh, K. Shahriar & M. Mehrjooei
Predicting the UCS of pyroclastic rocks from the slake durability index 267
S. Kahraman, M. Fener & O. Gunaydin
Effect of water on the deformability of rocks under uniaxial compression 271
M. Kwaśniewski & P. Rodríguez-Oitabén
A case study of 3D stress orientation determination in Shikoku Island and Kii Peninsula, Japan 277
W. Lin, Y. Kuwahara, T. Satoh, N. Shigematsu, Y. Kitagawa, T. Kiguchi, T. Sato, H. Tsukamoto, S. Itaba, Y. Umeda, Y. Seki, M. Takahashi, N. Matsumoto & N. Koizumi
Three-dimensional modelling of the rock breakage process 283
H.Y. Liu, F. Alonso-Marroquin & D.J. Williams
Geotechnical input essential for power waterway design 291
M. Marence
Pocket cards to aid description of carbonate rocks as core or outcrops 297
P.M. Maurenbrecher & D.M. Ngan-Tillard
Shear strength of weathered soft rock—Proposal of test method additions 303
P. Miščević & G. Vlastelica
The application of impression test in creep behavior of mudstone 309
M. Moosavi, F.S. Rassouli & M. Jafari
Effect of humidity on fracture toughness and slow crack growth in sandstone 313
Y. Nara, T. Yoneda & K. Kaneko
Microstructural degradation of Maastrichtian limestones 321
D.J.M. Ngan-Tillard, W. Verwaal, P.M. Maurenbrecher & L.A. van Paassen
An adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for uniaxial compressive strength of rocks 327
R. Noorani, H. Kordi & A.H. Ghazvinian
Fracture toughness in Mode I and II of rock under water vapor pressure 333
Y. Obara, T. Yoshinaga & A. Hirata
Temperature dependence of calcium carbonate precipitation for biogrout 339
S. Ogata, S. Kawasaki, N. Hiroyoshi, M. Tsunekawa, K. Kaneko & R. Terajima
The resonant frequency measurement and cracking evolution in rocks 345
A. Saad & M. Bost
Effect of surface roughness on velocity fields through rock fractures 351
M. Sarifzadeh, M. Javadi, K. Shahriar & M. Mehrjooei
A conceptual empirical approach for the overall strength of unwelded bimrocks 357
H. Sonmez, K.E. Kasapoglu, A. Coskun, C. Tunusluoglu, E.W. Medley & R.W. Zimmerman
Classification of carbonate and clastic rock masses by RMR and Q-system 361
B. Stojković, G. Stojković, D. Užarević & G. Grget
Geotechnical investigation challenges and solutions for Gautrain 367
R.B. Storry, R. Tosen, T.E.B. Vorster & A. Bergere
Geometry of pore structure in pressurized Berea sandstone 375
M. Takahashi, M. Kato & Y. Urushimatsu
A triaxial compression and triaxial extension test of Kimachi sandstone 381
N. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Kiyama & T. Takemura
Borehole radar cavity and discontinuity assessment in dolomite for Gautrain 387
R. Tosen, R.B. Storry & S. Hoeben
Acoustic emission based rock stress measurement method 393
T. Tuokko & M.S. Poutanen
Relation of rock mass characterization and damage 399
P. Ván & B. Vásárhelyi
Strength and deformation of biologically cemented sandstone 405
L.A. van Paassen, M.C.M. van Loosdrecht, M. Pieron, A. Mulder, D.J.M. Ngan-Tillard & T.J.M. van der Linden
A robust estimator of rock mass properties following Eurocodes’ principles 411
D.D. Vardakastanis, A.G. Karlaftis & K.A. Kiamos
Microscopic back analysis method of Continuum Damage Model based FEM 419
G.F. Zhao, T. Xu, J. Zhao & M.Z. Gao

Design methods and analyses
Optimization of rock mass support systems during deep excavations 427
Ž. Arbanas, M. Grošić, D. Udovič & V. Jagodnik
Block stability analysis around a large cavern using probabilistic approach 435
A. Baghbanan, A. Sookhak, H. Hashemalhosseini & M. Bagheri
Rheological dynamics of tunnels—An analytical investigation 441
T. Fülöp & Gy. Béda
The stability assessment of karstic caves beneath Gushikawa Castle remains (Japan) 449
M. Geniş, N. Tokashiki & Ö. Aydan
The calculation of the bases and foundations on the karsted areas 455
N.Z. Gotman & Yu.A. Gotman
Stability analysis of large-scale slopes in heterogeneous rock masses 459
P. Hrženjak, D. Navratil, I. Vrkljan & B. Duvnjak
Comparison of DEM and FDM for analysis of road embankment in karst region 465
C. Kwak, K. Seo, J. Lee & I. Park
Influence of the primary stress state on the displacement characteristic 471
C. Leber, N. Radončić & W. Schubert
Neural network modeling of scour depth downstream of spillways 477
P.G.C. Lins & T.B. Celestino
How 3D modeling can improve quality & reliability of geotechnical projects 483
V.R. Marchesi, S.A.B. da Fontoura & N.P.R. Rubio
Geotechnical 3D modelling in soft rocks using the RNK method 489
Ž. Ortolan, S. Zlatović & I. Vrkljan
Forward prediction of spatial displacement development 495
T. Pilgerstorfer & W. Schubert
Interaction of young shotcrete with the deforming ground 501
N. Radončić & W. Schubert
Distinct element analysis of jointed and karstified rocks in a former quarry 507
N. Sciarra, E. Miccadei, M. Calista & D. Marchetti
An analytical solution modeling the groundwater flow 513
M.G. Senyur & D. Arikan
2D versus 3D modelling for tunnelling at a weakness zone 519
Q.N. Trinh, E. Broch & M. Lu
Seismic analysis of ovaling deformations of tunnels in full-slip condition 525
A. Vakilzadeh & S. Vakilzadeh

Monitoring and back analysis
Monitoring and back numerical analyses in the Konjsko tunnel 533
I. Arapov, M.S. Kovačević & P. Lušo
Predicting slope collapse using slope stability radar deformation data 539
D. Arosio & N. Harries
Automatic processing of displacement monitoring data during tunnel excavation 545
J. Klopčič, J. Logar & T. Ambrožič
Analysis of long-term deformation of a rock slope on Ikura limestone quarry 551
J. Kodama, K. Narasaki, K. Kaneko, E. Nishiyama & Y. Yoshida
Engineering estimation method of decrepit slope by compound survey 557
H. Kusumi, T. Yamamoto & M. Nakamura
Feasibility of excavation of disposal cells in 500 meter deep clay formation 561
J. Morel, G. Armand & V. Renaud
Concept for expert system for displacement data evaluation 567
W. Schubert & K. Grossauer
Back analysis of the Siah Bishe Power House Cavern 573
B. Stabel, K. Thermann & A. Ghahramani
New instruments improve site characterization with time based measurements 577
P. Steiner & R. Yeatman
Pre-collapse detection of failure in cavities by nanoseismic monitoring 583
M. Tsesarsky & H.G. Wust-Bloch
Rock deformation and support load in shaft sinking in Horonobe URL Project 589
K. Tsusaka, M. Yamasaki & Y. Hatsuyama
Testing study on mechanical feature of rock surrounding deep coal gates 595
K. Yang

Excavation and support
Application of contact surface modeling for digging force determination 601
M. Avdić, I. Kožar & I. Moranjkić
Predicted and actual conditions of the Namroud project diversion tunnel 605
D. Bahadorbeygi, J. Ranasooriya & H. Nikraz
Rock parameters for blasting on the highway Split-Dubrovnik 611
B. Božić, N. Petrović & I. Lukić
The construction of the Jinping Auxiliary Tunnel in karst rock 617
S. Chen, H. Zhang, C. Yan, H. Gu & L. Xiang
Deformation control for tunneling with a small separation in soft strata 623
F. Cheng, S. Chen, X. Tan & J. Wang
Modelling of influence of the shallow coal seam longwall mining 629
R. Čeliković, I. Bajrektarević & M. Avdić
Rock support optimization for Pianqiao diversion tunnel 635
X. Deng, S. Chen & H. Zhang
Lined tunnel construction in soft rock conditions 641
M. Fatehi Marji, A. Pourzargar & H. Mehrnahad
Predicting TBM performance in second lot of Karaj Water Conveyance Tunnel (KWCT) 645
J. Hassanpour & J. Rostami
Analysis of coal drawing from high coals in sublevel caving systems 651
S.V. Klishin & V.I. Klishin
TBM tunnelling in karst regions: Wanjiazhai project 657
D. Kolić, Y. Bai & A. Nicola
Key technologies of long-distance shield tunneling in hard rock 663
M. Li, S. Chen, H. Zhang, J. Wang, J. Liu & X. Han
Evaluation of ground convergence and support system of Taloun tunnels 669
R. Noorani & S. Aloodari
Difficulties ground condition in excavation of longest inclined shaft in Iran 675
M.R. Shahverdiloo
A supportability comparison of rock and spiral bolts with numerical method 679
M.K. Song, S.Y. Choo, S.S. Kang & Y.D. Cho
Time influence of the mining hold-up to the effects on the longwall face 685
M. Suljkanović, M. Avdić & Š. Suljić
Stability analysis of console slope formation 689
P. Šiša, S. Kasapović & I. Sokolić
Factors influencing performance of hard rock tunnel boring machines 695
S. Yagiz, J. Rostami, T. Kim, L. Ozdemir & C. Merguerian

Environmental aspects of geotechnical engineering in karst regions
Designing and constructing rockfall barriers – Experiences in Republic of Croatia 703
M. Grošić, Ž. Arbanas & D. Udovič
Diaphragm wall as anti-karst protection 709
O.I. Ignatova & Ch.A. Dzhantimirov
Impervious barriers for landfills in karst region of Istrian Peninsula 711
D. Kovačić, I. Petrović, D. Štuhec, B. Kovačević Zelić, Ž. Veinović & D. Znidarčić
Pillar design below a weak roof 717
I. Misich
Protection of Lake Vrana natural phenomenon on the Island of Cres 723
N. Ožanić
Environmental impacts of the Lötschberg Base and Crest Tunnels, Switzerland 729
M. Pesendorfer, S. Loew & M. Zappa
Spiral rope nets for rockfall protection – Tests, design, application 735
A. Roduner, A. Vogel & V. Budimir
New challenges of engineering karstology in Russia 741
V.V. Tolmachev
Rockfall potential of Kastamonu Castle 745
T. Topal & M. Akin

Case histories
Case history of open pit excavation for Sport Hall Zamet in Rijeka, Croatia 751
Ž. Arbanas, M. Vivoda, V. Pavlić, P. Đomlija & G. Briški
The origin of instability phenomena along the karst-flysch contacts 757
Č. Benac, S. Dugonjić, Ž. Arbanas, M. Oštrić & V. Jurak
Foundation of the Viaduct “Kotezi” 763
K. Bolanča & T. Novosel
Failure of a concrete dam foundation by erosion along soft rock joints 767
J.F. da Silva
Suspension bridge constructed across deep gorge in karst, Papua New Guinea 773
R.C. Goldsmith, A.K. Parkin & R. Polzinger
Preliminary investigations, design and realization of high reinforced-concrete anchoring structures in Dubrovnik area 779
I. Jašarević, E. Prelogović, H. Krhen, B. Miller, I. Skert & H. Perković
Vault remedy of the caving object in tunnel Vrata 787
M.S. Kovačević, M. Garašić & D. Jurić-Kaćunić
Examples of reinforced earth walls along the highway Split – Ploče 793
P. Kvasnička, D. Domitrović, M. Marohnić & I. Brunetta
Ermenek dam—Design and execution of the grout curtain 797
J. Linortner, G. Jung & G. Zenz
Remedial of rock slide of the Mary’s cave rock mass 803
I. Lukić, T. Ivanković, D. Zovko & M. Bašagić
Preparation and causes of major collapse at Annenskiy Mine (Kazakhstan) 809
V.A. Mansurov & V.I. German
Appropriateness of open TBM tunnelling in the Himalaya – A case study 815
K.K. Panthi
Design and construction of an open cut in poor rock, City Line Stockholm 821
R.M. Swindell & L. Rosengren
Modified compaction grouting for dolomitic soil and rock, South Africa 827
R. Tosen, R.B. Storry & M. Baribault
Foundation design on mining subsidence terrain 835
S. Zekan, M. Stević & A. Hamzabegović